Raw Umber Deep is darker in shade than Raw Umber due to the addition of black to umber. This produces a colour similar to Bistre, a colour used by the old masters as the brown ink in their drawings. It was made by partially burning beechwood and then boiling the burnt wood to extract the colour, the watery colour result was used as ink.
Depending on the degree of burning of the wood the colour could be a yellowish brown but the most prized colour was a darker version much like Raw Umber Deep. Bistre ink can be seen in drawings from the Renaissance, in artists like Leonardo da Vinci, all the way through to the 19th century. Rembrandt’s ink drawings are particularly fine examples of the use of Bistre ink. While the name is still used, the original beechwood pigment production is limited to small-scale hand made and specialist production for the few artists who still use it.
Chemical Description: Natural iron oxide, amorphous carbon
Pigment Number: PBr7 PBk7
Lightfastness Rating: ASTM I
Pigment Opacity: Semi-Transparent
Paint Opacity: Semi-Transparent