The mineral known as Cinnabar dates back to antiquity; the Romans called it minium. In 1687, Schulte used mercury to create the Vermilion pigment, named after “Vermeil” (bright red). As a result of its toxicity and its poor stability, notably in mixtures with flake white, artists since the early 20th century have increasingly replaced it with this substitute, made from nitrogenous “azo” and extenders. Bright, luminous orange-red with high tinting strength. Good lightfastness. Suitable for all techniques except fresco.