In all probability this is the oldest pigment color ever used by humans. All of the oldest archeological evidence in which pigment remains were found, they were of Red Oxide. There is even evidence of Neanderthals using it to sprinkle on dead bodies, possibly to bring a semblance of life back to the skin. The oldest confirmed remnants of human usage are 60,000 years old in the caves at Pinnacle Point in South Africa, but there are more controversial artifacts over 100,000 years old. The oldest use of Red Oxide is probably as wet clays at the sides of rivers which were used to draw designs on the human body but unfortunately that is not the sort of thing to leave lasting remains via fossilization and will probably always be conjecture. Some cave remains in South Africa are of shells used as containers for red pigment but what exactly the pigment was used for is lost. It could potentially be anything from cosmetics, to decorations on tools and weapons, to ritualistic colouring for ceremonies. We will probably never know.
Chemical Description: Synthetic iron oxide
Pigment Number: PR101
Lightfastness Rating: ASTM I
Pigment Opacity: Transparent
Paint Opacity: Opaque